Alfred Watkins
Credit: Karen Watkins

Founder and Chairman, Global Solutions Summit

Alfred Watkins is Founder and Chairman of the Global Solutions Summit which promotes the large-scale deployment of financially sustainable and disruptive technological solutions to implement the SDGs in emerging markets. Prior to founding the Global Solutions Summit, he worked for more than 23 years at the World Bank where, in addition to work in other regions, he led science, technology, and innovation capacity-building programs in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Latvia. He is the author of From Knowledge to Wealth: Transforming Russian Science and Technology for a Modern Knowledge Economy (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 2974).


In this special issue for S&D, five authors formerly affiliated with the World Bank have responded to the question, "How have science and technology impacted the World Bank’s programs? How have these programs evolved and what could have been done better? What would you recommend to the new World Bank President Ajay Banga from a S&T perspective?"


Science & Diplomacy gathered four perspectives of U.S. scientists and former diplomats who have spent several decades involved in scientific collaboration with the USSR, Russia, Ukraine, and post-Soviet states.