Grażyna Żebrowska is the former director general of the Polish National Agency for Academic Exchange (2020-2022), and Board Member Ideas NCBR - Polish center of innovation in the field of artificial intelligence.


In 2012, Konarzewski and Żebrowska did not imagine Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. With unthinkable new challenges facing Eastern Europe, these authors emphasize how lessons of science diplomacy of the Cold War should not be forgotten.


Polish researchers are increasingly staying within the EU instead of immigrating to the United States. This shift could impact U.S.-Polish relations and reflects the challenges facing the country to attract globalized talent.


The EU and the United States should enhance and expand scientific academic programs and build ties with countries in Eastern Europe.